Cactaceae- Taxonomic information

یکشنبه 19 شهریور 1391 11:06 ق.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
      

                   

      
KingdomPlantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants
SubkingdomViridaeplantae – green plants
InfrakingdomStreptophyta – land plants
DivisionTracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes
SubdivisionSpermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames
InfradivisionAngiospermae – flowering plants, angiosperms, plantas com flor, angiosperma, plantes à fleurs, angiospermes, plantes à fruits
ClassMagnoliopsida
SuperorderCaryophyllanae
OrderCaryophyllales
FamilyCactaceae – cactus
Direct Children:
GenusAcanthocereus (Engelm. ex Berger) Britt. & Rose – triangle cactus
GenusAncistrocactus
GenusAriocarpus Scheidw. – livingrock
GenusAstrophytum Lem. – astrophytum
GenusBergerocactus Britt. & Rose – snakecactus
GenusCarnegia Britt. & Rose – carnegia cactus, saguaro
GenusCarnegiea Britton & Rose – saguaro
GenusCephalocereus Pfeiff.
GenusCereus P. Mill. – sweetpotato cactus
GenusCoryphantha (Engelm.) Lem. – coryphantha, beehive cactus, coryphantha cactus
GenusEchinocactus Link & Otto – echinocactus, barrel cactus
GenusEchinocereus Engelm. – hedgehog cactus
GenusEpiphyllum Haw. – climbing cactus
GenusEpithelantha A. Weber ex Britt. & Rose – epithelantha, pingpong ball cactus
GenusEscobaria Britt. & Rose – foxtail cactus, pincushion cactus
GenusFerocactus Britt. & Rose – ferocactus, barrel cactus
GenusHarrisia Britt. – applecactus
GenusHyalocereus
GenusHylocereus (Berger) Britt. & Rose – nightblooming cactus
GenusLemaireocereus
GenusLeptocereus (Berger) Britt. & Rose – leptocereus
GenusLophophora Coult. – lophophora
GenusMammillaria Haw. – pincushion cactus, globe cactus, fishhook cactus
GenusMelocactus Link & Otto – melocactus
GenusNeolloydia Britt. & Rose – neolloydia
GenusOpuntia P. Mill. – figues de Barbarie, pricklypear, pricklypear and cholla, cactus spp., Prickly pear, prickly pear species
GenusPachycereus (Berger) Britt. & Rose – pachycereus
GenusPediocactus Britt. & Rose – hedgehog cactus
GenusPeniocereus (Berger) Britt. & Rose – peniocereus
GenusPereskia P. Mill. – pereskia
GenusPilosocereus Byles & Rowley – tree cactus
GenusRhipsalis Gaertn. – rhipsalis
GenusSchlumbergera Lem. – schlumbergera
GenusSclerocactus Britt. & Rose – fishhook cactus
GenusSelenicereus (Berger) Britt. & Rose – moonlight cactus
GenusStenocereus (Berger) Riccob. – stenocereus
GenusThelocactus (K. Schum.) Britt. & Rose – thelocactus
GenusTurbinicarpus Buxbaum & Backeberg – top cactus



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Family Cactaceae

یکشنبه 19 شهریور 1391 10:54 ق.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
Family Cactaceae
Acanthocalycium
Acanthocereus
Acharagma
Ancistrocactus
Ariocarpus
Armatocereus
Arrojadoa
Arthrocereus
Astrophytum
Austrocactus
Austrocylindropuntia
Aztekium
Bergerocactus
Blossfeldia
Brachycereus
Brasilicereus
Brasiliopuntia
Browningia
Calymmanthium
Carnegiea
Cephalocereus
Cereus
Cintia
Cipocereus
Cleistocactus
Cochemiea
Coleocephalocereus
Consolea
Copiapoa
Corryocactus
Corynopuntia
Coryphantha
Cumulopuntia
Cylindropuntia
Dendrocereus
Denmoza
Discocactus
Disocactus
Echinocactus
Echinocereus
Echinomastus
Echinopsis
Epiphyllum
Epithelantha
Eriosyce
Escobaria
Escontria
Espostoa
Espostoopsis
Eulychnia
Facheiroa
Ferocactus
Frailea
Geohintonia
Grusonia
Gymnocalycium
Haageocereus
Harrisia
Hatiora
Hylocereus
Isolatocereus
Jasminocereus
Lasiocereus
Leocereus
Lepismium
Leptocereus
Leuchtenbergia
Lophophora
Maihuenia
Maihueniopsis
Mammillaria
Mammilloydia
Matucana
Melocactus
Micranthocereus
Micropuntia
Mila
Miqueliopuntia
Myrtillocactus
Neobuxbaumia
Neolloydia
Neoraimondia
Neowerdermannia
Notocactus
Obregonia
Opuntia
Oreocereus
Oroya
Ortegocactus
Pachycereus
Parodia
Pediocactus
Pelecyphora
Peniocereus
Pereskia
Pereskiopsis
Pierrebraunia
Pilosocereus
Polaskia
Praecereus
Pseudoacanthocereus
Pseudorhipsalis
Pterocactus
Pygmaeocereus
Quiabentia
Rauhocereus
Rebutia
Rhipsalis
Samaipaticereus
Schlumbergera
Sclerocactus
Selenicereus
Stenocactus
Stenocereus
Stephanocereus
Stetsonia
Strombocactus
Sulcorebutia
Tacinga
Tephrocactus
Thelocactus
Tunilla
Turbinicarpus
Uebelmannia
Weberbauerocereus
Weberocereus
xPacherocactus
Yavia
Yungasocereus



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Plant adaptations

یکشنبه 19 شهریور 1391 10:39 ق.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat. These adaptations might make it very difficult for the plant to survive in a different place. This explains why certain plants are found in one area, but not in another. For example, you wouldn't see a cactus living in the Arctic. Nor would you see lots of really tall trees living in grasslands.

Click on the different biomes or areas below to learn about them and some of the adaptations plants have to live there:

Desert
Desert
Grassland
Grassland
Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical Rain Forest
Temperate Rain Forest
Temperate Rain Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Taiga
Taiga
Tundra
Tundra
In Water
In Water



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اشنایی با برخی از گیاهان سمی

دوشنبه 23 مرداد 1391 05:25 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی



کرچک باقلا : Castor Bean


ممکن است شما متعجب شوید که بدانید یک عنصر کرچک باقلا مرگبارترین سم گیاهی می باشد. در حقیقت فقط یک ذره کوچک از کرچک باقلا کافی است تا یک فرد بالغ را طی چند دقیقه بکشد. روغن کرچک به شکل امن ( اما نه خوش طعم ) از متحرک ترکیبی کشنده به نام ricin درست شده است.


نخود تسبیح : Rosary Pea


نخود تسبیح ممکن است بسیار زیبا و جذاب خوانده شود اما در واقع یکی از خطرناکترین گیاهان روی زمین است. دانه های آن حاوی یک lectin خاص به نام abrin می باشند، که اگر بلعیده شود مرگ بلافاصله به دنبال آن رخ خواهد داد. دانه های آن به راحتی توسط پوشش قرمز روشن و مشخص و یک نقطه سیاهشان شناسایی می شوند. ( تقریبا بر عکس عنکبوت بیوه سیاه )


قاتل الذئب - تاج الملوک : Monkshood


یکی دیگر از گیاهان سمی که اسم مستعار آن “wolfsbane” ( زهر گرگ ) می باشد. دلیل اینکه این گیاه یکی از گیاهان مورد استفاده و رایج کشاورزان است این است که یک ابزار بسیار موثر برای مرگ گرگ است. اسامی مستعار آن شامل زهر پلنگ و راکت آبی و کلاه شیطان است.

سم بوشمن : Bushman's Poison


معروف است که این سم در آفریقای جنوبی برای سمی کردن نوک پیکانها استفاده می شود. اگرچه گیاه، گلهای خوش عطر و یک آلوی خوش طعم مانند توت تولید می کند شیره ی شیری آن می تواند کشنده باشد. این گیاه همچنین به نام wintersweet ( زمستان شیرین ) نیز معروف است.

شیپور فرشته : Angel's Trumpet


با توجه به مصرف بیش از حد استفاده کنندگان ناآگاه موارد بسیاری بستری شدن و تعدادی بیماری به خاطر استفاده تفریحی گزارش شده است. این گیاه رایج به نام های دیگری مانند علف هرز جیمسون نیز مشهور است. این گیاه حاوی 4 ماده سمی است که بر روی سیستم عصبی بدن تاثیر می گذارند.

شوکران آبی : Water Hemlock


شوکران همان سمی است که سقراط بزرگ را مجبور به نوشیدنش کردند. شوکران آبی هم دقیقا به همان اندازه کشنده است. گفته می شود که گیاه شوکران آبی سمی ترین گیاه در تمام آمریکای شمالی است. گل ها و ساقه های این گیاه سمی نیستند اما ریشه های این گیاه آکنده از مواد سمی است.

سرخدار انگلیسی : English Yew


این گیاه یا درخت را می توان یکی از مهلک ترین گیاهان یا درختان روی زمین به حساب آورد. این گیاه ظاهری باشکوه دارد و در اغلب نقاط اروپا یافت می شود. سم این گیاه سریع عمل می کند و هیچ پادزهری ندارد.

گل مار : Snake Root


گل مار خطرناکترن نوع گیاه برای دام مانند گاو و گوسفند است. وقتی گاو شکوفه های سفید جذاب و پر مانند و ساقه این گیاه را مصرف کند شیر و استخوانش پر از توکسین می شود و در انسانی که از این حیوان آلوده مصرف می کند بیماریهای پیشرفته مربوط به شیر تولید می شود.


درخت استریکنین : Strychnine Tree


مشهور است که شاهزاده کلئوپاترا خدمتکاران خود را مجبور کرد تا با خوردن دانه های میوه این درخت، دست به خودکشی بزنند. در دانه های سمی این گیاه سم استریکنین و بروسین وجود دارد. کلئوپاترا این کار را به این خاطر انجام داد تا مطمئن شود که آیا میوه های این درخت، برای خودکشی خودش در صورت لزوم مناسب هستند یا نه.


بذر ماه : Moonseed


نامش متوجه دنیای دیگر است و گیاهی با اثرات اغلب کشنده. دانه های این میوه ی آلویی ( میوه ی هسته دار ) به شکل جدی برای انسان سمی هستند اگرچه پرندگان می توانند آنها را بخورند. این گیاهان ابتدا باعث فلج شدن می شوند اما در اندازه زیاد کشنده است.

دافنه : Daphne


این گیاه ، یک گیاه محبوب در اروپا است که خانم ها از آنها برای آرایش خود استفاده می کنند. این گیاه همیشه بهار، برگ های زیبا و گل های خوشبو و معطر دارد که هرکسی را جذب می کند، البته اینها موجب نمی شود که این گیاه سمی نباشد. مصرف بر گها یا میوه های زرد و قرمز این گیاه در ابتدا موجب استفراغ شدید می شود و بعد هم خو نریزی داخلی، کما و مرگ در انتظار خواهد بود.


گل نرگس : Narcissus


هر دو نوع زرد و سفید سمی است اما نوع زردرنگش بسیار سمی تر است. البته گل و ساقه این گیاه سمی نیست بلکه پیاز این گیاه است که بسیار زهراگین است. سقراط این گیاه را به دلیل سمی بودن «گردنبند خدایان دوزخ» می نامید.


خرزهره : Oleander


خرزهره، مرگ آورترین گیاه روی زمین است. این گیاه همچنین به عنوان یک گیاه بسیار محبوب در تزئینات و دکوراسیون، شهرت دارد. تنها یک برگ این گیاه می تواند یک انسان بالغ را به کشتن دهد. حتی شکوفه ها و گلبرگ های این گیاه نیز بسیار سمی است.

گل صدتومانی : Rhododendron


این گیاه سمی همیشه بهار است و در سراسر منطقه شمال غربی اقیانوس آرام دیده می شود. نوع درختچه ای این گیاه نیز که به آزالیا معروف است بسیار سمی است. سمی که در این گیاه وجود دارد، می تواند موجب اسهال و استفراغ، دردهای شدید، کما و مرگ شود.

گیلاس وحشی : Wild Cherry


این گیاه در منطقه آمریکای شمالی می روید. گیلاس های این گیاه کوچک هستند و البته به هیچ عنوان خوردنی نیستند. ساقه چوبی و برگ های این گیاه حاوی ماده ای به نام اسید هیدروسیانیک است که ماده ای بسیار کشنده است. این سم دستگاه تنفسی را از کار می اندازد و خفگی می آورد. شاید به همین دلیل نام دیگر این گیاه گیلاس خفه کننده است. اگر دانه هایشان بلعیده و یا جویده شود به سرعت وارد خون می شود و در مدت کوتاهی فرد را می کشد.

عن الثعلب - سایه شب : Night Shade


این گیاه با نام گیلاس شیطان نیز معروف است. سر تا پای این گیاه سمی است. کسانی که مقدار کمی این گیاه را بجوند، پس از مدت کوتاهی لال می شوند، مشکلات تنفسی و تشنج نیز پس از آن به سراغشان می آ ید. این گیاه میوه هایی بسیار شیرین دارد و بچه ها را به سمت خود جذب می کند.


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Magnoliaceae

شنبه 17 تیر 1391 09:02 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی


The Magnoliaceae are woody trees and shrubs comprising 12 genera and about 220 species. The leaves are simple, and alternate, usually with deciduous stipules that enclose the bud. The flowers are bi***ual, actinomorphic, and usually large, generally with 3 sepals and 6 to many petals. The androecium consists of many helically disposed stamens, each with generally large microsporangia and usually a short, poorly differentiated filament. The gynoecium is apocarpous, consisting of many helically disposed simple pistils. Each pistil has a superior ovary with a single locule and one to several marginal ovules. All of the floral parts are distinct and are attached to an elongated receptacle. The pistils mature into follicles or less often berries or samaras.
Magnolia grandiflora. Note the large, bowl-shaped flower consisting of undifferentiated perianth segments. The elongated receptacle also bears many separate stamens and pistils. In the lower photo the perianth segments and most of the stamens have abscised from the floral axis. The pistils remain and are developing into follicles.

Magnolia liliflora. In the 4th photo some of the perianth segments have been removed to reveal the androecium and gynoecium.

TD]Magnolia stellata, Corvallis, OR, 2003.

Magnolia sp., Corvallis, OR, 2003


Liriodendron tulipifera, tulip tree. This longitudinal section of the flower shows the greatly elongated floral axis, distally bearing many closely appressed, yet distinct pistils. In this case the pistils will develop into samaras.

Michelia champaca, orange champak. Note the elongated receptacle with many separate stamens and pistils and the development of each pistil into a follicle. This species has strongly scented flowers that are used for perfume.D
.Michelia alba, white champak



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CARNIVOROUS PLANTS

پنجشنبه 15 تیر 1391 06:23 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی


Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants in the Wilderness --- Online Photo Book

Click Photos to Open the Book




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روش جدید دفاع در گیاهان

چهارشنبه 14 تیر 1391 06:37 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
پژوهشگران استرالیایی با ازمایشات متعدد بر روی گیاه کلم چینی متوجه شده اند که این گیاه زمانیکه در معرض حمله کنه قرار می گیرد اقدام به ترشح موادی می کند که سایر حشراتی که از کنه ها تغذیه می کنند را به سمت گیاه می کشانند. این محققان بیان می کنند که حتی زمانیکه که کنه تغییر مکان می دهد گیاه دوباره با ترشحات خود مکان جدید کنه را به شکارچی نشان می دهد. بررسی برای شناخت این مواد ادامه دارد.     


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Plant Identification-3

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:21 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
Introduction - Most plant identification guides are designed to help you find the name of a plant based on its flowers. This is really tough during much of the fall season when flowers have already bloomed and withered. We have created a key to help you identify plants based on their leaves instead! This activity will help you become comfortable with vocabulary needed to use a plant key in the field. You will also learn about common invasive plants found in national parks in and around the nation’s capital. Have fun!

Directions - Look at the three habitats below. Each one can be found in one of the national parks in the Washington, D.C. area. Choose the habitat for the park you will visit

 
Woodland Edge HabitatWoodland Edge
National Parks:
Rock Creek Park
George Washington Mem.Parkway
C & O Canal National Park
Greenbelt Park
Fort Washington National

Continue - Identify plants in the woodland edge

Meadow HabitatMeadow
National Parks:
Rock Creek Park

Continue - Identify plants in the meadow

Lowland Forest HabitatLowland Forest
National Parks:
Dyke Marsh
Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens

Continue - Identify plants in the lowland forest





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Plant Identification-2

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:14 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

 

This section deals with the identification of plants that are commonly found in pastures and hay fields. The first part deals with the useful plants that we wish to grow, and the second part deals with the weeds, some of which are poisonous.

Figure 2. represents the parts of a grass plant Figure 3. Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
Figure 2. represents the parts of a grass plant which may be used for identification.

Figure 3. Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) – A. Has a narrow, v-shaped blade with boat-shaped leaftip; B. rhizomes; and C. open panicle with small spikelets grouped in clusters.


Figure 4. Orchardgrass (Dactylis flomerata) Figure 5. Timothy (Phleum pratense)
Figure 4. Orchardgrass (Dactylis flomerata) – A. Broad, v-shaped blade with very prominent midrib, sheath flattened, keeled; B. ligule is very tall and membranous; C. broad yellow collar; D. panicle inflorescence with clumped spikelets.

Figure 5. Timothy (Phleum pratense) – A. Broad flat smooth blade; B. panicle inflorescence as a dense cylinder; C. corms (bulb-like shape) found at base of stem.

Figure 6. Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis) Figure 7. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

Figure 6. Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis) – A. Wide, flat blade, sheath round (closed to near the top); B. large open panicle inflorescence; C. rhizomes; D. water mark on the blade (an M or W mark across the middle of the blade).

Figure 7. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) – A. Rough, flat blade, with prominent veins and pointed tip; B. auricles are small, short, and hairy; C. short rhizomes and stems flat but not sharply keeled; D. open panicle with spikelets.


Figure 8 identifies parts of the legume plants

Figure 8 identifies parts of the legume plants and shows a detailed picture of one leaf from each plant to be discussed.


Figure 9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Figure 9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) – A. Pinnately (narrow) trifoliate leaf; B. outer one-half to one-third of leaflet is serrated;C. short, raceme type inflorescence with spiral-like seed pod.


Figure 10. Ladino clover (Trifolium repens) Figure 11. Red clover (Trifolium pratensen)

Figure 10. Ladino clover (Trifolium repens) – A. Palmately (broad) trifoliate with v-shaped watermark; B. weakly serrated leaflet; C. no trifoliate leaf from bloom to stolon; D. white with a pinkish hue to inflorescence. White clover is a smaller variety of the clover.

Figure 11. Red clover (Trifolium pratensen) – A. Palmately trifoliate leaf with football-shaped leaflets and v-shaped watermarks; B. sheath-like stipule; C. distinctly pubescent; D. has a trifoliate leaf just below a red inflorescence.

Figure 12. Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) Figure 13. Yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)

Figure 12. Birdsfoot Trefoil(Lotus corniculatus) – A. Pinnately (5 leaflets) compound leaf; B. not pubescent; C. yellow to orange umbel inflorescence; D. seed pods resemble shape of bird’s foot.

Figure 13. Yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) – A. Pinnately trifoliate leaf; B. completely serrated leaflet; C. long and erect yellow raceme inflorescence; D. small stipules. There is also a white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) that looks the same except it has a white inflorescence.





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تفاوت ریزوم با استولون

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:03 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
Figure 1: Broadleaf Plant Identification Image


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کلید شناسایی درختان

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:01 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی



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انواع برگ؛ کلیدی برای شناسایی

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 06:50 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی



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Moss antheridia, archegonia and inflorescences

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 07:16 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Moss antheridia, archegonia and inflorescences





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Flower Structure and Function

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 07:08 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی


 

Flowering plants are the dominant type of plants on the earth today (there are about 250000 species). Flowers are therefore the most common plant organs for sexual reproduction.  

Flowers produce gametes (sex cells).

Flowers play a key role in pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen (containing the male gametes), from the anther of a flower, to the stigma (receptive surface of the female part of the flower) of the same or a different flower. 

Parts of the Flower:

Flower Part

Form and Function
PeduncleFlower stalk.
ReceptaclePart of flower stalk bearing the floral organs, at base of flower.
SepalLeaf-like structures at flower base, protects young flower bud.
CalyxAll the sepals together form the calyx.
PetalLocated in and above the sepals, often large and colourful, sometimes scented, sometimes producing nectar. Often serve to attract pollinators to the plant.
CorollaAll the petals together form the corolla.
StamenMale part of the flower, consisting of the anther and filament, makes pollen grains.
FilamentThe stalk of the stamen which bears the anther.
AntherThe pollen bearing portion of a stamen.
Pollen Grains containing the male gametes. Immature male gametophyte with a protective outer covering.
Carpel\PistilFemale part of the flower. Consisting of the stigma, style and ovary.
StigmaOften sticky top of carpel, serves as a receptive surface for pollen grains.
StyleThe stalk of a carpel, between the stigma and the ovary, through which the pollen tube grows.
OvaryEnlarged base of the carpel containing the ovule or ovules. The ovary matures to become a fruit.
OvuleLocated in the ovaries. Carries female gametes. Ovules become seeds on fertilization.

The sex of a flower can be described in three ways:

  1. Staminate flowers:  Flowers bearing only male sex parts. These are sometime referred to as "male flowers".

  2. Carpellate\Pistillate Flowers: Flowers bearing only female sex parts. These are sometimes referred to as "female flowers".

  3. Hermaphhrodite\Complete flowers: Flowers bearing both male and female sex parts.

 

In many cases flowers are borne as a group on a common stalk, called an inflorescence. They are many different types of floral inflorescences. The type of inflorescence present is sometimes used to aid in classifying flowering plants. Below are a number of common floral inflorescences.

 

 

 

Flowers are sometimes associated with prominent, often brightly coloured leaves called bracts. In some instances (like in bougainvilleas, heliconias and  ginger lillies), the bracts are even more colourful and outstanding than the flowers they surround.

 

In the heliconia cultivar on the left, the large yellow and red structures are bracts, while the small yellow structures within them are the actual flowers.

The yellow shrimp plant, has large, showy yellow bracts, and smaller white flowers.

 

 

 

 

 




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Identification Techniques

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 06:24 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Classification/Nomenclature

Scientific classification or taxonomy is the ordering and ranking of organisms into groups having common characteristics.  Scientists classify organisms to bring order and efficiency to data storage and information.

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum or Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

Nomenclature is the assignment of names to organisms. In distinguishing between tree species we use common or vernacular names and scientific names - genus and species. The word vernacular means “native to a region”. Vernacular names are used in common everyday speech, but not by scientists. Because there are many common names listed for every tree, it is necessary to have a universal system for distinguishing organisms. Latin is the language used for scientific names, so that scientists world-wide can speak the same language when it comes to identifying organisms.
 

The first word in a scientific name is always the genus.  The second word is the species name and is usually a Latin description of an important characteristic of the organism.  When writing the genus and species, the first letter of the genus is always capitalized and the species is always in lowercase.  Both words should be either underlined or italicized. 

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how to id

Identification Techinques

Tree Form

While examining tree form, note the size, shape and branching patterns of the tree. Also, observe its location in relation to other trees that might affect its form. Is the tree found in the upper, middle, or lower part of the canopy? A shade intolerant tree that is found in the lower canopy of a forest will be greatly affected by the lack of sunlight and will display different form than if it received the sunlight it requires. Understanding a tree's adaptations and living requirements helps when identifying trees. 

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Habitat

Understanding that trees require water, sunlight, nutrients and space is just the beginning in comprehending a species habitat. Every species is best adapted to a particular combination of environmental factors or conditions. The natural environment of a plant or animal containing all the necessary resources for the plant or animal to live, grow and reproduce is known as the habitat.

The mountain forests of West Texas add other factors in understanding tree habitat: aspect and elevation. The temperature change at higher elevations and amount of sunlight a tree receives directly influence the species found in an area. Rainfall and soil structure also change at higher elevations. 

More information can be found about habitats for different tree species on the Texas Eco-Regions page.

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Bark

Bark can vary greatly from species to species. How to identify tree by their bark is particularly important during winter months when deciduous trees have lost their leaves. While examining the bark observe the thickness, texture, type and color.

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Leaves

Examining the leaves is probably the most common way to identify trees, because leaves can be very distinctive from species to species.

While investigating a leaf, determine if the leaf is simple or compound. This is determined by looking for the bud. Compound leaves can be tricky; are you looking at a leaf or a leaflet? Only by finding the bud, will you know for certain.

Study the size, shape and variations on the same tree. In distinguishing conifer species, identifying the number of needles per fascicle is useful. Some species like mulberry and sassafras display different leaf shapes on the same tree. Also, note the leaf arrangement on the twig – opposite, alternate or whorled. Observe the blade, stalk, margin, venation(veins), base , and upper and lower surfaces of each leaf. The texture and color of the leaf will also help in identification.

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bark

Leaf Arrangement

leafs

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Leaf Shape Descriptions

Leaf Shapes
Lanceolate Leaf ShapeOvate Leaf ShapeObovate Leaf ShapeStar Shaped leaf
LanceolateOvateObovateStar-shaped
Leaf Forms
Linear or rectangular leaf shapeHeart-shaped or Orbicular leaf shapeOval leaf shapeElliptical leaf shapeDeltoid leaf shape
Linear or
Rectangular
Heart-shaped
or Orbicular
OvalEllipticalDeltoid

Leaf Apexes
AcuminateAcuteObtuseTruncateBristle PointedRounded
AcuminateAcuteObtuseTruncateBristle PointedRounded

Leaf Margins
EntireDentateToothed or SerrateSinuate or WavyDoubly SerrateLobedIncised
EntireDentateToothed 
or Serrate
Sinuate 
or Wavy
Doubly SerrateLobedIncised

Leaf Bases
Wedge-shaped or CuneateInequilateralRoundedBottom of Heart Shaped LeafTruncate
Wedge-shaped 
or Cuneate
InequilateralRoundedHeart-shaped 
or Cordate
Truncate
Copyright © Robert O'Brien

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Parts of a Leaf

parts

 

Twigs

Twig identification is useful during winter months when deciduous trees have lost their leaves. Note lateral arrangement on branches. Are branches opposite or alternate or whorled? Observe if the twig is flexible or stocky, rough or smooth. Differences will occur between new growth and old. Many twigs have a distinctive color, smell, and taste. By cutting a thin slice along a twig down into the central core of the twig, you can identify the pith. The pith is the central portion of the twig. Most native species have a solid pith. Some species have diaphragmed pith, which displays regularly spaced disks of horizontally elongated cells. The third type of pith you may find is called chambered, which is divided into empty chambers by cross partitions. Note the size, shape and color of the pith. 

Determine the presence or absence of lenticels. Lenticels are small dots found on some twigs that provide aeration to the tissues beneath them.

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Buds

Like bark and twigs, the buds are helpful in winter identification. Identifying the bud is important in determining if a leaf is simple or compound. Often, people confuse a leaflet of a compound leaf for a simple leaf. 

There are usually two types of buds, the terminal and lateral. Terminal buds are found at the apex or end of each shoot. Lateral buds, which are most commonly used to identify tree species, are found along the twig. Terminal buds are usually larger than lateral buds. Not all tree species have a true terminal bud.

Note the size, scale coverings and shape. Buds are either scaly or naked. Bud scales that are numerous and overlap one another are called imbricate. Buds that have two scales which do not overlap are calledvalvate. Observe the arrangement and position of the buds on the twigs; compare terminal and lateral buds.

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Flowers

Flowers are modified short shoots consisting of a stem, sterile leaves and reproductive leaves. Trees will vary widely in flowering habits, so studying flowers during the proper season can be very helpful in identification. Observe the size, form, shape of parts, color and arrangement. Discover whether the tree has one or two kinds of flowers – if two, whether male and female flowers are on the same tree. This is referred as monecious or dioecious. Monecious are plants that have both male and female flowers or cones per plant and dioecious are plants having either male or female flowers or cones per plant. 

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Fruit

A fruit is a ripened ovary, usually with seeds. During the proper season and when available, fruits provide another distinguishing characteristic for identifying trees. Observe the type, form, structure and method of distribution.

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twigs

buds

flowers

Common Types of Fruits and Seeds

common

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Cones

Studying cones is an excellent way to identify conifer species. The size, shape, color, and texture are all distinguishing characteristics of cones. Some cones are armed with spines on the end of the scales. For example, loblolly pine cones have armed scales, whereas slash pine cones do not; otherwise the cones can be difficult to distinguish. In East Texas the most commonly found pine species are longleaf, slash, loblolly and shortleaf pine. Pinyon pine is commonly found in the mountain forests of West Texas.

Samples of Cones


 




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