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علوم گیاهی - HERBARIUM

HERBARIUM

سه شنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1391 05:18 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
A herbarium is a collection of plant samples preserved for long-term study. These materials may include pressed and mounted plants, seeds, wood sections, pollen, microscope slides, frozen DNA extractions, and fluid-preserved flowers or fruits; all are generally referred to as herbarium specimens. Worldwide there are over 300 million specimens preserved for research in herbaria (plural for herbarium).

Herbaria are usually associated with universities, museums, or botanical gardens. The first is believed to have been established in 1570 in Bologna, Italy, by Luca Ghini. There are now around 4,000 herbaria in over 165 countries. A world catalog of public herbaria, Index Herbariorum, is published periodically by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy and provided on the web at: http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp. Each herbarium in Index Herbariorum is assigned an official acronym (code) that is used as a standard for referring to the institution and its specimens.

Approximate list of the ten largest herbaria in the world (also see List of Herbaria at Wikipedia and Index Herbariorum, the official registry):

acronymlocationnamespecimens (ca. millions)
P, PCParis, FranceMuséum National d'Histoire Naturelle9.5
NYNew York, USANew York Botanical Garden7.2
LESt. Petersburg, RussiaKomarov Botanical Institute7.2
KLondon, EnglandRoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew7
GGeneva, SwitzerlandConservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève6
MOSt. LouisMissouri Botanical Garden5.9
L, U, WAGThe NetherlandsThe Nationaal Herbarium Nederland (NHN)5.5
BMLondon, EnglandBritish Museum of Natural History5.2
GH, A, AMES, ECON, FHCambridge, MassachusettsHarvard University Herbaria5
WVienna, AustriaNaturhistorisches Museum Wien5



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