شنبه 17 تیر 1391 09:02 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

The Magnoliaceae are woody trees and shrubs comprising 12 genera and about 220 species. The leaves are simple, and alternate, usually with deciduous stipules that enclose the bud. The flowers are bi***ual, actinomorphic, and usually large, generally with 3 sepals and 6 to many petals. The androecium consists of many helically disposed stamens, each with generally large microsporangia and usually a short, poorly differentiated filament. The gynoecium is apocarpous, consisting of many helically disposed simple pistils. Each pistil has a superior ovary with a single locule and one to several marginal ovules. All of the floral parts are distinct and are attached to an elongated receptacle. The pistils mature into follicles or less often berries or samaras.
Magnolia grandiflora. Note the large, bowl-shaped flower consisting of undifferentiated perianth segments. The elongated receptacle also bears many separate stamens and pistils. In the lower photo the perianth segments and most of the stamens have abscised from the floral axis. The pistils remain and are developing into follicles.

Magnolia liliflora. In the 4th photo some of the perianth segments have been removed to reveal the androecium and gynoecium.

TD]Magnolia stellata, Corvallis, OR, 2003.

Magnolia sp., Corvallis, OR, 2003

Liriodendron tulipifera, tulip tree. This longitudinal section of the flower shows the greatly elongated floral axis, distally bearing many closely appressed, yet distinct pistils. In this case the pistils will develop into samaras.

Michelia champaca, orange champak. Note the elongated receptacle with many separate stamens and pistils and the development of each pistil into a follicle. This species has strongly scented flowers that are used for perfume.D
.Michelia alba, white champak

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پنجشنبه 15 تیر 1391 06:23 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Carnivorous Plants / Insectivorous Plants in the Wilderness --- Online Photo Book

Click Photos to Open the Book

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روش جدید دفاع در گیاهان

چهارشنبه 14 تیر 1391 06:37 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
پژوهشگران استرالیایی با ازمایشات متعدد بر روی گیاه کلم چینی متوجه شده اند که این گیاه زمانیکه در معرض حمله کنه قرار می گیرد اقدام به ترشح موادی می کند که سایر حشراتی که از کنه ها تغذیه می کنند را به سمت گیاه می کشانند. این محققان بیان می کنند که حتی زمانیکه که کنه تغییر مکان می دهد گیاه دوباره با ترشحات خود مکان جدید کنه را به شکارچی نشان می دهد. بررسی برای شناخت این مواد ادامه دارد.     

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Plant Identification-3

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:21 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
Introduction - Most plant identification guides are designed to help you find the name of a plant based on its flowers. This is really tough during much of the fall season when flowers have already bloomed and withered. We have created a key to help you identify plants based on their leaves instead! This activity will help you become comfortable with vocabulary needed to use a plant key in the field. You will also learn about common invasive plants found in national parks in and around the nation’s capital. Have fun!

Directions - Look at the three habitats below. Each one can be found in one of the national parks in the Washington, D.C. area. Choose the habitat for the park you will visit

Woodland Edge HabitatWoodland Edge
National Parks:
Rock Creek Park
George Washington Mem.Parkway
C & O Canal National Park
Greenbelt Park
Fort Washington National

Continue - Identify plants in the woodland edge

Meadow HabitatMeadow
National Parks:
Rock Creek Park

Continue - Identify plants in the meadow

Lowland Forest HabitatLowland Forest
National Parks:
Dyke Marsh
Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens

Continue - Identify plants in the lowland forest

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Plant Identification-2

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:14 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی


This section deals with the identification of plants that are commonly found in pastures and hay fields. The first part deals with the useful plants that we wish to grow, and the second part deals with the weeds, some of which are poisonous.

Figure 2. represents the parts of a grass plant Figure 3. Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
Figure 2. represents the parts of a grass plant which may be used for identification.

Figure 3. Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) – A. Has a narrow, v-shaped blade with boat-shaped leaftip; B. rhizomes; and C. open panicle with small spikelets grouped in clusters.

Figure 4. Orchardgrass (Dactylis flomerata) Figure 5. Timothy (Phleum pratense)
Figure 4. Orchardgrass (Dactylis flomerata) – A. Broad, v-shaped blade with very prominent midrib, sheath flattened, keeled; B. ligule is very tall and membranous; C. broad yellow collar; D. panicle inflorescence with clumped spikelets.

Figure 5. Timothy (Phleum pratense) – A. Broad flat smooth blade; B. panicle inflorescence as a dense cylinder; C. corms (bulb-like shape) found at base of stem.

Figure 6. Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis) Figure 7. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

Figure 6. Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis) – A. Wide, flat blade, sheath round (closed to near the top); B. large open panicle inflorescence; C. rhizomes; D. water mark on the blade (an M or W mark across the middle of the blade).

Figure 7. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) – A. Rough, flat blade, with prominent veins and pointed tip; B. auricles are small, short, and hairy; C. short rhizomes and stems flat but not sharply keeled; D. open panicle with spikelets.

Figure 8 identifies parts of the legume plants

Figure 8 identifies parts of the legume plants and shows a detailed picture of one leaf from each plant to be discussed.

Figure 9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Figure 9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) – A. Pinnately (narrow) trifoliate leaf; B. outer one-half to one-third of leaflet is serrated;C. short, raceme type inflorescence with spiral-like seed pod.

Figure 10. Ladino clover (Trifolium repens) Figure 11. Red clover (Trifolium pratensen)

Figure 10. Ladino clover (Trifolium repens) – A. Palmately (broad) trifoliate with v-shaped watermark; B. weakly serrated leaflet; C. no trifoliate leaf from bloom to stolon; D. white with a pinkish hue to inflorescence. White clover is a smaller variety of the clover.

Figure 11. Red clover (Trifolium pratensen) – A. Palmately trifoliate leaf with football-shaped leaflets and v-shaped watermarks; B. sheath-like stipule; C. distinctly pubescent; D. has a trifoliate leaf just below a red inflorescence.

Figure 12. Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) Figure 13. Yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)

Figure 12. Birdsfoot Trefoil(Lotus corniculatus) – A. Pinnately (5 leaflets) compound leaf; B. not pubescent; C. yellow to orange umbel inflorescence; D. seed pods resemble shape of bird’s foot.

Figure 13. Yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) – A. Pinnately trifoliate leaf; B. completely serrated leaflet; C. long and erect yellow raceme inflorescence; D. small stipules. There is also a white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) that looks the same except it has a white inflorescence.

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تفاوت ریزوم با استولون

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:03 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
Figure 1: Broadleaf Plant Identification Image

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آخرین ویرایش: سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:07 ب.ظ

کلید شناسایی درختان

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 07:01 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

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انواع برگ؛ کلیدی برای شناسایی

سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 06:50 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

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Moss antheridia, archegonia and inflorescences

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 07:16 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Moss antheridia, archegonia and inflorescences

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Flower Structure and Function

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 07:08 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی


Flowering plants are the dominant type of plants on the earth today (there are about 250000 species). Flowers are therefore the most common plant organs for sexual reproduction.  

Flowers produce gametes (sex cells).

Flowers play a key role in pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen (containing the male gametes), from the anther of a flower, to the stigma (receptive surface of the female part of the flower) of the same or a different flower. 

Parts of the Flower:

Flower Part

Form and Function
PeduncleFlower stalk.
ReceptaclePart of flower stalk bearing the floral organs, at base of flower.
SepalLeaf-like structures at flower base, protects young flower bud.
CalyxAll the sepals together form the calyx.
PetalLocated in and above the sepals, often large and colourful, sometimes scented, sometimes producing nectar. Often serve to attract pollinators to the plant.
CorollaAll the petals together form the corolla.
StamenMale part of the flower, consisting of the anther and filament, makes pollen grains.
FilamentThe stalk of the stamen which bears the anther.
AntherThe pollen bearing portion of a stamen.
Pollen Grains containing the male gametes. Immature male gametophyte with a protective outer covering.
Carpel\PistilFemale part of the flower. Consisting of the stigma, style and ovary.
StigmaOften sticky top of carpel, serves as a receptive surface for pollen grains.
StyleThe stalk of a carpel, between the stigma and the ovary, through which the pollen tube grows.
OvaryEnlarged base of the carpel containing the ovule or ovules. The ovary matures to become a fruit.
OvuleLocated in the ovaries. Carries female gametes. Ovules become seeds on fertilization.

The sex of a flower can be described in three ways:

  1. Staminate flowers:  Flowers bearing only male sex parts. These are sometime referred to as "male flowers".

  2. Carpellate\Pistillate Flowers: Flowers bearing only female sex parts. These are sometimes referred to as "female flowers".

  3. Hermaphhrodite\Complete flowers: Flowers bearing both male and female sex parts.


In many cases flowers are borne as a group on a common stalk, called an inflorescence. They are many different types of floral inflorescences. The type of inflorescence present is sometimes used to aid in classifying flowering plants. Below are a number of common floral inflorescences.




Flowers are sometimes associated with prominent, often brightly coloured leaves called bracts. In some instances (like in bougainvilleas, heliconias and  ginger lillies), the bracts are even more colourful and outstanding than the flowers they surround.


In the heliconia cultivar on the left, the large yellow and red structures are bracts, while the small yellow structures within them are the actual flowers.

The yellow shrimp plant, has large, showy yellow bracts, and smaller white flowers.






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Identification Techniques

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 06:24 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی


Scientific classification or taxonomy is the ordering and ranking of organisms into groups having common characteristics.  Scientists classify organisms to bring order and efficiency to data storage and information.

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum or Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

Nomenclature is the assignment of names to organisms. In distinguishing between tree species we use common or vernacular names and scientific names - genus and species. The word vernacular means “native to a region”. Vernacular names are used in common everyday speech, but not by scientists. Because there are many common names listed for every tree, it is necessary to have a universal system for distinguishing organisms. Latin is the language used for scientific names, so that scientists world-wide can speak the same language when it comes to identifying organisms.

The first word in a scientific name is always the genus.  The second word is the species name and is usually a Latin description of an important characteristic of the organism.  When writing the genus and species, the first letter of the genus is always capitalized and the species is always in lowercase.  Both words should be either underlined or italicized. 

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how to id

Identification Techinques

Tree Form

While examining tree form, note the size, shape and branching patterns of the tree. Also, observe its location in relation to other trees that might affect its form. Is the tree found in the upper, middle, or lower part of the canopy? A shade intolerant tree that is found in the lower canopy of a forest will be greatly affected by the lack of sunlight and will display different form than if it received the sunlight it requires. Understanding a tree's adaptations and living requirements helps when identifying trees. 

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Understanding that trees require water, sunlight, nutrients and space is just the beginning in comprehending a species habitat. Every species is best adapted to a particular combination of environmental factors or conditions. The natural environment of a plant or animal containing all the necessary resources for the plant or animal to live, grow and reproduce is known as the habitat.

The mountain forests of West Texas add other factors in understanding tree habitat: aspect and elevation. The temperature change at higher elevations and amount of sunlight a tree receives directly influence the species found in an area. Rainfall and soil structure also change at higher elevations. 

More information can be found about habitats for different tree species on the Texas Eco-Regions page.

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Bark can vary greatly from species to species. How to identify tree by their bark is particularly important during winter months when deciduous trees have lost their leaves. While examining the bark observe the thickness, texture, type and color.

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Examining the leaves is probably the most common way to identify trees, because leaves can be very distinctive from species to species.

While investigating a leaf, determine if the leaf is simple or compound. This is determined by looking for the bud. Compound leaves can be tricky; are you looking at a leaf or a leaflet? Only by finding the bud, will you know for certain.

Study the size, shape and variations on the same tree. In distinguishing conifer species, identifying the number of needles per fascicle is useful. Some species like mulberry and sassafras display different leaf shapes on the same tree. Also, note the leaf arrangement on the twig – opposite, alternate or whorled. Observe the blade, stalk, margin, venation(veins), base , and upper and lower surfaces of each leaf. The texture and color of the leaf will also help in identification.

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Leaf Arrangement


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Leaf Shape Descriptions

Leaf Shapes
Lanceolate Leaf ShapeOvate Leaf ShapeObovate Leaf ShapeStar Shaped leaf
Leaf Forms
Linear or rectangular leaf shapeHeart-shaped or Orbicular leaf shapeOval leaf shapeElliptical leaf shapeDeltoid leaf shape
Linear or
or Orbicular

Leaf Apexes
AcuminateAcuteObtuseTruncateBristle PointedRounded
AcuminateAcuteObtuseTruncateBristle PointedRounded

Leaf Margins
EntireDentateToothed or SerrateSinuate or WavyDoubly SerrateLobedIncised
or Serrate
or Wavy
Doubly SerrateLobedIncised

Leaf Bases
Wedge-shaped or CuneateInequilateralRoundedBottom of Heart Shaped LeafTruncate
or Cuneate
or Cordate
Copyright © Robert O'Brien

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Parts of a Leaf




Twig identification is useful during winter months when deciduous trees have lost their leaves. Note lateral arrangement on branches. Are branches opposite or alternate or whorled? Observe if the twig is flexible or stocky, rough or smooth. Differences will occur between new growth and old. Many twigs have a distinctive color, smell, and taste. By cutting a thin slice along a twig down into the central core of the twig, you can identify the pith. The pith is the central portion of the twig. Most native species have a solid pith. Some species have diaphragmed pith, which displays regularly spaced disks of horizontally elongated cells. The third type of pith you may find is called chambered, which is divided into empty chambers by cross partitions. Note the size, shape and color of the pith. 

Determine the presence or absence of lenticels. Lenticels are small dots found on some twigs that provide aeration to the tissues beneath them.

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Like bark and twigs, the buds are helpful in winter identification. Identifying the bud is important in determining if a leaf is simple or compound. Often, people confuse a leaflet of a compound leaf for a simple leaf. 

There are usually two types of buds, the terminal and lateral. Terminal buds are found at the apex or end of each shoot. Lateral buds, which are most commonly used to identify tree species, are found along the twig. Terminal buds are usually larger than lateral buds. Not all tree species have a true terminal bud.

Note the size, scale coverings and shape. Buds are either scaly or naked. Bud scales that are numerous and overlap one another are called imbricate. Buds that have two scales which do not overlap are calledvalvate. Observe the arrangement and position of the buds on the twigs; compare terminal and lateral buds.

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Flowers are modified short shoots consisting of a stem, sterile leaves and reproductive leaves. Trees will vary widely in flowering habits, so studying flowers during the proper season can be very helpful in identification. Observe the size, form, shape of parts, color and arrangement. Discover whether the tree has one or two kinds of flowers – if two, whether male and female flowers are on the same tree. This is referred as monecious or dioecious. Monecious are plants that have both male and female flowers or cones per plant and dioecious are plants having either male or female flowers or cones per plant. 

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A fruit is a ripened ovary, usually with seeds. During the proper season and when available, fruits provide another distinguishing characteristic for identifying trees. Observe the type, form, structure and method of distribution.

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Common Types of Fruits and Seeds


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Studying cones is an excellent way to identify conifer species. The size, shape, color, and texture are all distinguishing characteristics of cones. Some cones are armed with spines on the end of the scales. For example, loblolly pine cones have armed scales, whereas slash pine cones do not; otherwise the cones can be difficult to distinguish. In East Texas the most commonly found pine species are longleaf, slash, loblolly and shortleaf pine. Pinyon pine is commonly found in the mountain forests of West Texas.

Samples of Cones


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آخرین ویرایش: سه شنبه 13 تیر 1391 06:44 ب.ظ

Fruit 2

شنبه 10 تیر 1391 05:59 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی
Fruit consists of carpels where the ovules (seeds) develop and the ovary wall or pericarp, which may be fleshy (as in apples) or dry and hard (as in an acorn). Some fruits have seeds (mature ovules) enclosed within the ovary (apples, peaches, oranges, squash and cucumbers). The peel of an orange, the pea pod, the sunflower shell, and the skin flesh and pit of a peach are all derived from the pericarp. Other fruit have seeds that are situated on the periphery of the pericarp (corncob, strawberry flesh).

Figure 1. In apples, the ovary wall becomes the fleshy part of the fruit. Notice the small fruit structure in the blossom.

Figure 2. Pome fruit (apple)

Figure 3. Stone fruit (peach)
Fruit Types


Conifersare best known for their woody cones, pine cones. Junipers are an example of a conifer with a fleshy cone (Juniper berry). Upon close examination, the overlapping scales can be observed.

Figure 4. Fruit of conifers – Left: Woody seed cone (pine cone). Right: Fleshy seed cone (Juniper berry).
Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

Depending on flower structure and inflorescence type, fruits may be either simple, aggregate, or multiple.

  • Simple – Fruit formed from one ovary.
  • Aggregate – Fruit formed from a single flower with many ovaries. If not all of the ovaries are pollinated and fertilized, the fruit will be misshapen (raspberry, magnolia).
  • Multiple – Fruit developed from a fusion of separate, independent flowers born on a single structure (mulberry, pineapple, beet seed).

Table 1. Key to Common Fruit Types
1a. Fruit fleshy. -- go to 21b. Fruit dry at maturity. -- go to 6
2a. Fruit simple, that is derived from a flower with a single ovary. -- go to 32b. Fruit derived from a single flower with many ovaries. – Aggregate Fruit(raspberry, magnolia). Note: If not all of the ovaries are pollinated and fertilized, the fur it will be misshapen.2c. Fruit develops form multiple separate flowers in an inflorescence, the fruits coalesce together to form a single “fruit” at maturity. – Multiple Fruit (mulberry, pineapple, beet seed)
3a. Fruit with a single seed enclosed in a hard pit. Theexocarp (outer layer) becomes the thin skin; the mesocarp(middle layer) becomes thick and fleshy; and the endocarp(inner layer) becomes a hard stony pit. – Drupe (peaches, olives, cherries, plums) 3b. Fruit with more than one seed, the seed not enclosed in a hard pit. -- go to 4
4a. Fruit develops from the ovary only. Pulpy fruit from one or more carpels that develops few to many seeds, inner and outer walls fleshy. – Berry (tomatoes, eggplant, blueberries, and grapes)
4a-1. Berries with a leather rind containing oils, enclosing a pulpy juice sack (carpels). –Hesperidium (citrus: oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit)

4b. Fruits develops from the ovary plus other flower parts (accessory fruits). -- go to 5
5a. Simple fruits with relative hard rind at maturity, fleshy-watery interior with many seeds. – Pepos (cucumbers, melons, and squash)
5b. Simple fruit with several carpels and papery inner wall (endocarp) and fleshy outer wall. – Pomes (apple, pear, quince)
6a. Fruit not splitting at maturity. -- go to 76b. Fruit splitting open at maturity. -- go to 10
7a. One-seed achene fruit (elm, ash) or two-seed fruit (maple) with a wing-like structure formed from the ovary wall.–Samaras

7b. Fruit without wings. – go to 8
8a. One-seeded fruit with hard stony shell (pericarp) surrounding the seed. – Nut (oak, filbert, walnut)
8b. Fruit without hard shell. – go to 9
9a. Simple, one-seeded fruit with a thin seed coat (pericarp) surrounding and adhering tightly to the true seed. – Caryopsis(corn, rice, wheat, and barley)
9b. Simple, one-seeded, thin-wall fruit with seed loosely attached to ovary wall. – Achenes (sunflower)
10a. Fruit from two or more carpels, each with many seeds, splitting along or between carpel lines or forming a cap that comes off or a row of pores near the top. – Capsule (iris, poppy, jimson weed)
10b. Fruit splitting lengthwise along the edge. – go to 11
11a. Fruits from two carpels with a central partition to which the seeds are attached. Splits to expose seeds along central membrane. – Silique or Silicle(mustards)
11b. Fruits not leaving a central partition. – go to 12
12a. Fruit from a single carpel that splits along one suture only. –Follicles (Delphinium)
12b. Fruit from a single carpel usually splits along two sutures. Found in members of the Fabaceae (pea) family. – Legumes Pod (peas, beans)
12c. Fruit formed from two or more carpels that split at maturity to yield one-seeded halves. – Schizocarp

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شنبه 10 تیر 1391 05:57 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Fruits are the containers in which the plant puts its seeds. They are not all fruits as we think of them, but have many different forms. Some are fleshy with parts we like to eat, some are dry, some are heavy and are designed to be dispersed by falling and rolling away from the parent plant, some have wings or fluffy tails to enable them to be caught by the wind to be dispersed.
Fruits are divided into Fleshy Fruits, and Dry Fruits.
Fleshy Fruits can be subdivided again into those formed from a single flower and those formed from a group of flowers. They can have one seed or several seeds in.
Fleshy Fruits formed from a single flower are classified as: Berry, Drupe, Aggregation of Drupes, Pome, Hesperidium. Some authorities also give these separate status: Hep, Pseudocarp, Pepo.
Fleshy Fruits which grow from a group of flowers are: Sorosis, Synconium, Coenocarpium.
Dry Fruits can be divided into those in which the seeds are contained in a seedpod of some sort which opens to release the seeds (called Dehiscent), and those in which there isn't a seedpod which opens (Indehiscent).
Dry Dehiscent Fruits are Follicle, Legume, Silique, Capsule. Some authorities separate these further.
Dry Indehiscent Fruits are: Achene, Nut, Samara, Caryopsis. Some people sub-divide some of these further. There are also Schizocarpic Fruits.
Knowing the type of fruit a plant has might help you to identify it, and might also help you to know when the seeds are ready to harvest.

formed from a single flower
BerryA Berry is a single fleshy fruit without a stone, usually containing a number of seeds.
This is a Kiwi Fruit (Actinidia chinensis). Other fruits of this type are: Banana (Musa), Coffee (Coffea arabica), Currant (Ribes), Pasionfruit (Passiflora), Pepper (Capsicum), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus).

DrupeA Drupe is a single fleshy fruit with a hard stone which contains the single seed.
This is a Cherry (Prunus avium). Other fruits of this type are: Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Plum (Prunus x domestica), Coconut (Cocos nucifera), Olive (Olea europaea), Peach (Prunus persica), Sloe (Prunus spinosa).

Aggregation of DrupesAn Aggregation of Drupes is a fleshy fruit, made up of many drupes but formed from a single flower, each drupe containing one seed.
This is a Raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Other fruits of this type are: Loganberry (Rubus), Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus).

PomeA Pome is a fleshy fruit with a thin skin, not formed from the ovary but from another part of the plant. These are sometimes calledAccessory Fruits. The seeds are contained in chambers in the centre of the fruit.
This is an Apple (Malus domestica). Other fruits of this type are: Firethorn (Pyracantha), Hawthorn (Crataegus), Medlar (Mespilus germanica), Pear (Pyrus communis), Quince (Cydonia oblonga).

HesperidiumA Hesperidium is a berry with a tough, aromatic rind.
This is an Orange (Citrus sinensis). Other fruits of this type are all Citrus fruits: Citron (Citrus medica), Grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), Kumquat (Fortunella), Lemon (Citrus limon), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia).

There are other types of fleshy fruit which some people classify separately. A Hep or Hip is a fleshy fruit containing achenes, as in the Rose (Rosa); aPepo is a fleshy fruit with a leathery skin, formed from an inferior ovary. This type of fruit is found only in members of the Gourd Family (Cucurbitaceae) - Cucumbers (Cucumis melo), Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus), Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), and Pseudocarp.

PseudocarpA Pseudocarp is a false fruit, because it does not contain the seeds. The seeds are achenes, on the outside of a fleshy fruit.
This is a Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).
formed from a group of flowers
There are a few fruits formed from a group of flowers (inflorescence) rather than just one, but which form only one fruit. These are Sorosis, as in the Mulberry (Morus), Syngonium, as in the Fig (Ficus), and Coenocarpium, as in the Pineapple (Ananas).


FollicleA Follicle is a dry dehiscent fruit which splits on one side only. It may contain one or many seeds.
This is the fruit of a Columbine (Aquilegia). Other fruits of this type are: Delphinium (Delphinium), Larkspur (Consolida), Love in a Mist (Nigella damascena), Milkweed (Asclepias), Peony (Paeonia).
LegumeA Legume is a dry dehiscent pod that splits on two sides.
This is the fruit of a Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus). Other fruits of this type are all in members of the Pea Family (Leguminosae/Fabaceae): Acacia (Acacia), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Flamboyant (Delonix regia), Pea (Pisum sativa), Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Redbud (Cercis occidentalis), Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus), Wisteria (Wisteria).

LomentumA Lomentum is a dry dehiscent fruit, a legume constricted between the seeds.
This is the fruit of a Golden Chain Tree (Laburnum anagyroides). Other fruits of this type are: Sophora (Sophora), Tick Trefoil (Desmodium).

SiliqueA Silique is a dry dehiscent fruit. It is long and thin, splits down the two long sides, and has a papery membrane (the septum) between the two halves.
This is the fruit of a Wallflower (Erysimum cheiri). Other fruits of this type are all in members of the Cabbage Family (Brassicaceae): Aubrieta (Aubrieta x cultorum), Cabbage (Brassica olearacea), Honesty (Lunaria annua), Radish (Raphanus sativus).
A silique which is less than twice as long as broad is called a Silicula.
.CapsuleA Capsule is the most common fruit type. A Capsule is a dry fruit which splits open to release the seeds.
These plants all have fruit capsules: Cotton (Gossypium), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus), Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), Jimson Weed (Datura), Mahogany (Afzelia), Witch Hazel (Hamamelis).
There are several types of Capsule, depending on how the fruit splits.

Valvate CapsuleA Valvate Capsule is a dry dehiscent fruit in which the tips of the seed capsule split.
This is the fruit of a Campion (Silene). Other fruits of this type are: Jacob's Ladder (Polemonium), Pink (Dianthus), Primrose (Primula).
Porose CapsuleA Porose Capsule is a dry dehiscent fruit, opening with pores or holes around the top.
This is the fruit of a Poppy (Papaver). Other fruits of this type are: Blue Poppy (Meconopsis), Prickly Poppy (Argemone).
Loculicidal CapsuleA Loculicidal Capsule is a dry dehiscent fruit, splitting along the locule (midrib of each ovary).
This is the fruit of Stinking Gladwyn (Iris foetidissima). Other fruits of this type: Evening Primrose (Oenothera), Valotta (Cyrtanthus elatus), and members of the Violet and Lily Families.

Circumscissile CapsuleA Circumscissile Capsule is a dry dehiscent fruit, opening by splitting through the centre of the fruit, so that the top of the capsule lifts off like a lid. An example of this type of fruit is Pimpernel (Anagallis)
A Septicidal Capsule splits along the septa (joints of the ovary) as in the Foxglove (Digitalis).

AcheneAn Achene is a single-seeded dry indehiscent fruit in which the seedcoat is not part of the fruit coat.
This is the fruit of a Sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Other fruits of this type are: Buttercup (Ranunculus), Clematis (Clematis), Coreopsis (Coreopsis), Dahlia (Dahlia), English Marigold (Calendula), Zinnia (Zinnia).

CypselaA Cypsela is a single-seeded dry indehiscent fruit that develops from a one part inferior ovary (on the stalk side of the flower). They are sometimes included with Achenes.
This is the fruit of a Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Other fruits of this type are found in the same plant family, the Daisy Family (Asteraceae).

NutA Nut is a large single hardened achene.
This is a Chestnut (Castanea sativa). Other fruits of this type are: Acorn (Quercus), Hazel (Corylus avellana), Hickory (Carya).

NutletThis is not a classification that seems to be recognised everywhere, but the Mint Family (Lamiaceae) is a very large plant family, and has a particular type of seed which is not quite any of the normal ones, so I thought it should be included somewhere.
The fruits of this family are single-seeded achene-like nutlets, which are held at the bottom of the calyx.
This is the fruit of a Salvia (Salvia). All members of the Mint Family (Lamiaceae) have this type of fruit.

CaryopsisA Caryopsis is a simple dry indehiscent fruit, like an achene, but with the seedcoat fused with the fruit coat.
This is the fruit of Sweetcorn (Zea). Other fruits of this type are all members of the Grass Family (Poaceae): Barley (Hordeum), Oats (Avena), Rice (Oryza), Rye (Secale), Wheat (Triticum).

SamaraA Samara is an independent dry indehiscent fruit which has part of the fruit wall extended to form a wing (i.e. not a winged seed inside another type of seed pod).
This is the fruit of a Maple (Acer). This is a Schizocarpic Samara, because the fruit splits into its separate Samaras. Other fruits of this type are: Ash (Fraxinus) - also Schizocarpic, Elm (Ulmus

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Inflorescences: How flowers are arranged on the stem

پنجشنبه 8 تیر 1391 06:11 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Shape Name and Description Example
diagram of single inflorescence shape Single

Sometimes, there is only one flower on each stem, or the flowers are borne so far apart that they cannot be described as being part of the same flowering cluster. They are often large flowers, so do not need the support of other flowers to attract pollinators.

The example is Papaver orientale.

Papaver orientale, an example of single inflorescence shape
diagram of a spike inflorescence shape Spike

A Spike is a group of flowers arising from the main stem, without individual flower stalks (sessile).

The example is Agastache foeniculum.

Agastache foeniculum, example of a spike inflorescence shape
diagram of a raceme inflorescence shape Raceme

A Raceme is a flower spike where the flowers have stalks of equal length, and the tip of the stem continues to grow and produce more flowers. Flowers open from the bottom up.

The example is Linaria vulgaris.

Linaria vulgaris, an example of a raceme inflorescence shape
diagram of a panicle inflorescence shape Panicle

A Panicle is a branched raceme, each branch having a smaller raceme of flowers. The terminal bud of each branch continues to grow, producing more side shoots and more flowers.

The example is Lagerstroemia indica.

Lagerstroemia indica, an example of a panicle inflorescence shape
diagram of a cyme inflorescence shape Cyme

A Cyme is a group of flowers in which the end of each growing point produces a flower, so new growth comes from side shoots and the oldest flowers are at the top.

The example is Geranium pratense.

Geranium, an example of a cyme inflorescence shape
diagram of a whorl or whorled inflorescence shape Verticillaster

A Verticillaster is a whorled inflorescence, where the flowers are borne in rings at intervals up the stem. The tip continues to grow, producing more whorls. This type of inflorescence is common in members of the Deadnettle/Mint Family (Lamiaceae).

The example is Phlomis russelliana.

Phlomis russeliana, an example of a whorl or whorled inflorescence shape
diagram of a corymb inflorescence shape Corymb

A Corymb is a flower cluster where all the flowers are at the same level, with flower stalks of different lengths, forming a flat-topped flower cluster.

The example is Achillea millefolium.

Achillea millefolium, an example of a corymb inflorescence shape
diagram of an umbel or umbellate inflorescence shape Umbel

An Umbel is a flower head in which all the flower stalks are of the same length, so that the flower head is rounded like an umbrella. Many bulbs have this type of flower head.

The example is Nerine bowdenii.

Nerine, an example of an umbel or umbellate inflorescence shape
diagram of a compound inflorescence shape Compound Umbel

A Compound Umbel is an umbel where each stalk of the umbel produces a smaller umbel of flowers. This type of inflorescence is typical of members of the Celery Family (Apiaceae).

The example is Crithmum maritimum.

Crithmum maritimum, an example of a compound inflorescence shape
diagram of a capitulum inflorescence shape Capitulum

A Capitulum is a flower head composed of many separate unstalked flowers close together. This type of inflorescence is typical of the Daisy Family (Asteraceae), where the outer flowers have one conspicuous large petal and the central disk is formed of flowers with smaller petals.

The example is a Senecio species.

Senecio, an example of a capitulum inflorescence shape

Like everything else in nature, these descriptions can only be a general guide to how your flowers might look. There are many variables, even on one plant, and flower clusters are often described as raceme-like cymes, or cymose panicles, or other words that indicate that the flowers do not conform exactly to any one type of inflorescence. The habit of growth may also be affected by growing conditions, so something that produces clear whorls in moist conditions might produce flowers closer together to form a denser spike in drier conditions. I generally refer to anything in long, thin inflorescences as a spike, and anything more rounded as a cluster.

Knowing how a flower head is composed can give you an idea of how many seeds it might produce. Every flower can produce its own seed, so a multiple flower head can theoretically produce many seeds. In practice, particularly in the case of members of the Daisy Family (Asteraceae), not all the seeds develop, which might indicate that pollinators miss some flowers when they are packed closely together.

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پنجشنبه 8 تیر 1391 06:09 ب.ظ

نویسنده : عسکر اله قلی

Every flowering plant arranges its blossoms in a consistent, characteristic way. Noticing how a plant's blossoms are arranged can be very helpful when we are trying to identify the plant. But before looking at the different kinds of flower arrangements, we need to become introduced to a good word. Here it is:


An inflorescence is a flowering plant's cluster of flowers. Below, with the pink splatters representing flowers, or blossoms, are diagrams of various common inflorescence types.

inflorescence types

Now let's look at the inflorescences of some real plants. To make the situation like "real life" I take a ten-minute walk and gather what I find, place what I collect onto my scanner screen, and below you see the results.

inflorescence types

At the far left, that's a little Oxalis plant with a single yellow blossom rising above its clover-like leaves. Usually healthy examples of this species of Oxalis bear their flowers in umbels, but this little plant was right along my path and did well to produce a single flower. I'm glad to begin with this ambiguous situation because it reminds us that sometimes plants can be tricky. If this little Oxalis had been healthy enough to produce several flowers, they'd have been arranged in an umbel.

The second-from-the-left is a "head" of White Clover, Trifolium repens. This inflorescence type isn't shown on our diagram. The white head consists of dozens of slender, white flowers, the pedicels (flower stems) of which all join at one place so that the flowers form a sort of sphere. You would call this inflorescence type a globose head, "globose" just meaning spherical, like a globe.

Green Poke fruits in a racemeThe third-from-the-left is part of an inflorescence of the Lyre-leaved Sage, Salvia lyrata. Here only the top two flowers remain. Below these flowers the corollas have fallen off after pollination, leaving only the calyxes surrounding the maturing fruits. You can see that the flowers and calyxes attach to the main stem directly, without possessing any pedicle (flower stem), so this inflorescence type is a spike. If the flowers had pedicles, as shown at the right, the inflorescence would be a raceme. The picture at the right shows a raceme of green, immature Poke fruits (Phytolacca americana).

The second-from-the-right plant is Spring Vetch, Vicia sativa. This plant typically produces two flowers at each node, one flower above each of the opposite leaves. You would say that it has paired flowers. Again, this flower type isn't shown in our diagram and again it shows that just because you have a nice diagram with fancy terms, Mother Nature is often more diverse than we expect her to be...

On the far right, that's False Garlic, Nothoscordum bivalve, with its blossoms in a classic umbel. Well, sometimes these plants do exactly what you want them to...

male & female flowers inside the spathe of an Elephan'ts Ear, Colocasia esculenta var antiquorumSometimes inflorescences are plum mind boggling. For instance, at the right you see the flowering structure of the big-leafed garden plant called Elephant's Ear. The Elephant's Ear belongs to the Arum Family, in which we also find such plants as Jack-in-the-pulpit, Philodendron, Anthurium, Caladium, and other mostly tropical plants.

In the the picture, male and female flowers grow separated from one another on a slender, fingerlike item surrounded by a cylinder of leaflike material. I've cut away one side of the leafy cylinder. On the fingerlike thing inside the cylinder, the green bumps at the bottom are hundreds of female flowers. At the top you see hundreds of cream-colored male flowers. The male and female flowers are separated by many sterile objects called staminodes.

The fingerlike thing bearing the flowers and staminodes is called a spadix and the leafy material forming a cylinder around the spadix is called a spathe. Gardeners who don't understand flower anatomy too well are likely to call the spathe the plant's "flower," but we know that actually in the picture at the right we're seeing hundreds of flowers.

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